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Technical guidance for spring wheat production in 2023

Release time: 2023-04-14

      Spring wheat is mainly distributed in the northwest and northeast of China. It is planted in both dry and irrigated areas。"Qingming" has passed, spring wheat began to sow。On the whole, the northeast spring wheat area and the northwest irrigated area have good moisture content, which is beneficial to wheat sowing, while the northwest dry land has poor moisture content due to low snowfall in winter and spring, high temperature and fast warming in spring。According to spring moisture content and climate characteristics, spring wheat production should focus on improving sowing quality, cultivating strong seedlings, strengthening field management, drought resistance and disaster reduction, and striving to achieve a good harvest。

      1. Reasonable crop rotation and land preparation before sowing

It is necessary to strengthen the rotation of spring wheat and previous cropping。In the spring wheat area of Northeast China, crops such as corn, soybean, rape and coarse grains can be reversed. When the previous crop is corn, special attention should be paid to the quality of land preparation to ensure that the straw returned to the field is completely covered and the rake is smooth and fine。Spring wheat area in northwest China can be rotated with flax, beans, corn, potato, glutinous millet, millet and other crops。

      It is recommended to complete the pre-sowing preparation work such as stubble elimination, land preparation and base fertilizer application at the end of autumn。After the previous harvest, deep tillage is required to remove stubble, set up soil and riffle, ripening the soil, storing moisture from rain, combining rotary tillage with flat land after autumn, applying sufficient base fertilizer, and sowing for the next year。For wheat fields that are not prepared in time before winter, the suitable time for soil moisture content should be selected as soon as possible in early spring to complete the work of tillage and preparation and base fertilizer application。Before sowing, the soil of the ploughing layer is required to be fine and soft, the surface is flat, the moisture content is abundant, and the deficiency and reality are suitable。The soil moisture is too wet in the wheat fields in early spring, and measures such as top ling and light harrowing should be taken according to the specific situation。

      Second, optimize the layout and select good varieties

      Northwest irrigation district selected high yield and high quality, lodging resistance, dry hot air resistance, stripe rust resistance, powdery mildew resistance, medium panicle type, medium strong gluten varieties;Northwest dry land selected stripe rust resistance, drought resistance, water saving, grain and grass harvest, good yellow varieties;Most of the northeast region for strong gluten wheat advantage industrial belt,It is advisable to select varieties with high quality and high yield, disease resistance and drought resistance, ear germination and black embryo resistance。

      Select seeds before sowing to ensure the use of good seeds of excellent varieties, and the seed quality should meet the standard of improved varieties。According to the situation of local diseases and pests, seed dressing or seed coating should be carried out before sowing to minimize the "white seeds" in the ground。

      Third, fine sowing, suitable for early sowing

      Firmly establish the concept of "seven points, three points", and strive to achieve a full seedling, seedling even and strong, and the number of groups is appropriate。The sowing requirements are uniform seed, consistent depth and row spacing, no shortage of seedlings, no repeat leakage, four corners to the seed, cover the soil tightly, to prevent floating seeds。

      (1) The sowing amount is determined。The tillering stage of spring wheat was short, the tillering rate was low, and the high yield of spring wheat depended mainly on the main stem forming into ear。According to the principle of "set yield by field, set ear, set seedling by ear, set seed by seedling", the sowing amount was calculated according to the yield target, variety characteristics, thousand grain weight, germination rate, seedling emergence rate, tiller heading rate, combined with sowing date and evening, soil fertility level, water and fertilizer conditions。Generally, the dry land protects 400,000-500,000 acres of seedlings, and the irrigated land protects 350-450,000 acres of seedlings。

      (2) Precision drill seeding。Mechanical sowing is adopted, broadcast sowing is prohibited, and wide precision sowing and wide and narrow row sowing are advocated in irrigation areas。Semi-precision seeding can be adopted to prevent the shortage of seedlings in the dry wheat area with unstable climate and precipitation。

      (3) Early sowing at appropriate time。Early sowing of spring wheat is recommended。When the temperature is stable through 0℃, the soil can be sown 5 cm。In areas with thick snow before spring sowing in Xinjiang and Northeast China, the snow layer can be mechanically destroyed in advance to promote snow melting and sow as early as possible。The sowing depth is determined according to the soil moisture content, the irrigation area is generally 3-5 cm, and the dry land and the soil moisture difference land can be properly deeply sown, but the sowing depth is generally not more than 7 cm。If the dry soil layer is more than 5 cm before sowing in dry land, it can be used to gently roll down the soil moisture one week before sowing and then sowing.Some soil layers more than 10 cm, need to take deep planting shallow cover seeding method, that is, first ditch, after sowing, in the wet soil layer, leave shallow trenches, and cover the soil about 3 cm along the ditch。

      Fourth, reasonable fertilizer, prevention and control of diseases and insects

      (1) Fertilization technology

      1. Determine the total fertilizer application。The total amount of fertilizer applied in the whole growth period should be determined according to the target yield, the basic fertility of soil before sowing and the utilization rate of fertilizer in the current year。The recommended reference fertilizer amount is: irrigated areas yield more than 500 kg per mu wheat fields, in the mu of 1.On the basis of 5-3 tons of organic fertilizer,The amount of fertilizer applied in the whole growth period is generally 12-15 kg of pure nitrogen, 8-10 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 2-3 kg of potassium oxide.Annual precipitation 400-500 mm, mu yield 250-400 kg of dry wheat fields,Acres of pure nitrogen 6-8 kg, phosphorus pentoxide 4-6 kg, potassium oxide 1.5-3 kg;Annual precipitation 300-400 mm, yield 100-200 kg of dry thin land, mu of pure nitrogen 3-5 kg, phosphorus pentoxide 2-4 kg, potassium oxide 1-1.5公斤。

      2. Apply sufficient base fertilizer。Spring wheat has a short growth period, and applying sufficient base fertilizer is the basis of stable and high yield。The base fertilizer should be applied as early as possible in the late autumn combined with tillage preparation, and the fertilizer and seeds can also be applied in layers by using large composite working machinery during spring sowing. The fertilizer should be applied below the seed1.0—1.Five centimeters to prevent seed corrosion。It is difficult to topdressing dry land,It is recommended to combine pre-sowing preparation or seeding,Apply all fertilizers as base fertilizer at one time;The backwardness of nitrogen fertilizer is emphasized in irrigation area,In addition to all organic fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potassium fertilizer as the base fertilizer,50% nitrogen fertilizer is applied as base fertilizer,The remaining 50% was applied as topdressing;The application ratio of nitrogen fertilizer as base fertilizer for spring wheat in drip irrigation area can be appropriately increased,More than 70% of nitrogen fertilizer, potassium fertilizer and all phosphate fertilizer are used as base fertilizer。

      3. Scientific topdressing。The first topdressing of spring wheat in the irrigated area was carried out in the two-leave-one-center to jointing stage, and the topdressing amount could account for about 70% of the total topdressing amount of nitrogen fertilizer according to the principle of early topdressing.The second topdressing was carried out in combination with irrigation from heading to flowering stage, and the topdressing amount accounted for about 30% of the total topdressing amount of nitrogen fertilizer。Topdressing depends on the field, the ground, and the growth. For the flourishing wheat fields with dark green leaves and a tendency to collapse, the topdressing time can be delayed or no longer。If the symptoms of yellow seedling, weak seedling and freezing occur in dryland wheat, about 2 kg of pure nitrogen can be added appropriately per mu combined with precipitation。

      (2) Irrigation technology

      1. Fill the soil with water。After winter, the soil freezes at night and dissipates during the day。If the previous crop is wheat straw, it is advisable to irrigate the soil moisture in late September to early October to accelerate the decomposition of the straw。In winter, the soil moisture should be fully filled, the irrigation amount of mu is generally 70-100 square, and the relative water content of soil is 70%-75%。

      2. Irrigation during growth period。Spring wheat is generally irrigated 3-4 times during the whole growth period。The first irrigation is carried out in the jointing period, and the irrigation is 50-70 square meters.The second irrigation is carried out in heading period, and the irrigation water of mu is 40-50 square meters.The third irrigation is carried out at the peak of grouting 20 days after flowering, and the irrigation is 30-40 square meters in mu。In areas with serious dry hot air hazards, 2-3 days before the arrival of dry hot air, you can shallow pour "face water" once, and irrigate about 20 square meters of water。Irrigation during the growth period should be adjusted in time according to the situation. If there is rainfall, or the wheat field with lodging and green tendency, watering can be delayed or no watering;Do not water in late windy weather;When the temperature is too high and the soil loses moisture quickly, the water can be properly watered in advance。If the relative water content of the surface 10 cm soil is less than 50%, it can be supplemented with irrigation 10-15 days before spring sowing, and the irrigation water of mu is 30-40 square meters。In the drip irrigation area, 7-9 times of drip irrigation and 8-15 days of irrigation cycle during the growth period of spring wheat, the high temperature season can shorten the interval of drip irrigation, and appropriately increase the amount of drip irrigation from jointing to flowering。

      (3) Suppression of cultivation

      After winter, if there are cracks on the ground, we should rake them in time to make up the cracks.If hardening occurs after spring sowing, it is necessary to use a rake to break the hardening and release seedlings promptly。Suppression can inhibit the growth of above ground, promote the development of underground root system, play the role of drought resistance and moisture retention, improve the resistance and yield。After sowing, depending on the soil water condition, the wheat was suppressed 1-2 times in the 3-5 leaf stage, and wet pressing was strictly prohibited。

      Tillage the wheat field once before jointing is beneficial to moisture retention and wheat seedling growth.For wheat fields with too many tillers, plow 3 to 5 cm deep, damage part of surface roots, promote roots down, and control above-ground growth。Cultivation combined with artificial weeding, if there are more weeds, chemical weeding can be carried out。Spring wheat 4-5 leaf stage is the best time for weed control, early control weeds did not emerge, 5 leaves after jointing to prevent vulnerable seedlings yield reduction and drug damage。

      4. Prevention and control of diseases and insects

Adhere to the "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control", through the selection of disease-resistant varieties, seed coating, scientific fertilization, strengthen management and other measures to create a good environment conducive to wheat growth, reduce the risk of disease and insects。Disease prevention and control focus on wheat stripe rust, powdery mildew, smut, root rot, scab, etc., insect pests focus on aphids, plasma suckers, red spiders, skin thrips, armyworm. Priority is given to agricultural control, biological control, scientific and rational use of chemical control, to achieve green, high-quality and efficient standards。

      (五)Disaster prevention and loss reduction

The Northeast spring wheat area should focus on the prevention of spring drought, summer drought, dry hot air and other disasters. In northwest China, drought, "cold spring" and dry hot air occur frequently and seriously, especially in the season of wheat greening, seasonal drought is prominent, so it is necessary to ensure suitable soil moisture and timely irrigation of dry wheat fields。For wheat fields with large population, excessive growth and lodging risk, lodging can be prevented by spraying Zhuang Fengan in the early stage of joints, and 1-2 times of "one spray and three prevention" after ear, with an interval of 7-10 days, which can achieve the purpose of preventing diseases and insects, dry hot air, premature aging and grain weight。Strengthening monitoring and forecasting, spraying naphthalene acetic acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and other solutions on the leaf surface before the hot air comes, can prevent the hot air and reduce the disaster loss to a certain extent。

      Fifth, timely harvest, particles to warehouse

      The suitable period of artificial harvest is the end of wax ripening, and the mechanical harvest can be carried out at the full ripening stage。Mechanical harvesting requires the total loss rate to be controlled within 3%。Prepare the machinery and site for harvesting and drying in advance to ensure the yield and quality of wheat harvest。Pay close attention to the weather forecast, adjust the harvest period appropriately, avoid "bad rain" and ear germination。If the water content of the seeds after threshing is high, after airing and drying, the water content of the seeds can be reduced to less than 13% before storage。

      (Source: Wheat Expert Guidance Group, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center